master's thesis
Alzheimerova bolest

Ana Jakovina (2016)
Sveučilište u Rijeci
Medicinski fakultet
Katedra za neurologiju
Metadata
TitleAlzheimerova bolest
AuthorAna Jakovina
Mentor(s)Olivio Perković (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Alzheimerova bolest je neurodegenerativna bolest i najčešći uzrok demencije u odraslih. Prvi ju je opisao 1906. godine dr. Alois Alzheimer, njemački neuropatolog i psihijatar. To je kronična, progresivna bolest mozga čiji simptomi počinju polako, neopaženo te s vremenom postaju sve teži onemogućavajući pacijentu svakodnevno funkcioniranje. Jedna od prvih i osnovnih značajki bolesti je poremećaj pamćenja, pacijenti imaju teškoće u prisjećanju starih informacija i učenju novih. Osim toga se javljaju poteškoće s jezikom, koncentracijom, organizacijom i planiranjem, vizuospacijalnim vještinama i orijentacijom. Nerijetko zbog toga pacijenti mogu izložiti opasnosti sebe i druge (rukovođenje strojevima, automobilima, ostavljanje uključenog štednjaka). Točan uzrok nastajanja je nepoznat, te se vjeruje da je bolest uzrokovana kombinacijom genetskih faktora, okolišnih čimbenika i životnih navika. Dvije glavne neuropatološke pojave su amiloidni plakovi (nakupina beta amiloida) i neurofibrilarni čvorovi (tvorbe građene od tau proteina). Svojim nakupljanjem uzrokuju oštećenje i smrt neurona, koji vodi do kliničke slike demencije. Alzheimerovu bolest nije jednostavno dijagnosticirati, a osnovni pristup dijagnozi jest isključenje drugih potencijalnih uzroka demencije, testiranje pacijentovih mentalnih sposobnosti različitim psihološkim testovima, te traženje specifičnih promjena na slikovnim prikazima mozga. Iako je bolest opisana prije više od stoljeća, terapija Alzheimerove bolesti danas je još uvijek vrlo skromna. Ne postoji lijek koji bi zaustavio degenerativni proces ili povratio izgubljene funkcije, a terapija je usmjerena na ublažavanje simptoma. Tu su također djelotvorne brojne aktivnosti koje djeluju stimulativno na mozak, a pomažu u pamćenju i stabilizaciji raspoloženja.
KeywordsAlzheimer's disease dementia memory impairment amyloid plaques neurofibrillary tangles cognitive stimulating activities
Committee MembersMira Bučuk (committee chairperson)
Igor Antončić (committee member)
Darko Ledić (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Rijeci
Medicinski fakultet
Lower level organizational unitsKatedra za neurologiju
PlaceRijeka
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE
Clinical Medical Sciences
Neurology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelintegrated undergraduate and graduate
Study programmeMedicine
Academic title abbreviationdr. med.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-07-15
Parallel abstract (English)
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in adults. It was first described in 1906 by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German neuropathologist and psychiatrist. It is a chronic, progressive brain disease where symptoms develop slowly, unnoticed and with time hinders daily functioning. One of the first and basic features of the disease is memory impairment, especially in the area of learning and recalling new informations. In addition, patients experience difficulties with language, concentration, organization and planning, visuospacial skills and orientation. Because of this symptoms patients can jeopardize themselves and others (management of machines, cars, leaving stove on). The exact cause of disease is unknown, but it is believed that for most people, Alzheimer's disease is caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that affect the brain over time. Two of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques between nerve cells in the brain and neurofibrillary tangles (insoluble twisted fibers found inside the brain's cells). Its accumulation causes damage and death of neurons, which leads to the clinical manifestation of dementia. Alzheimer's disease is not easily diagnosed, and the basic approach to diagnosis is to exclude other potential causes of dementia, testing patient's mental status with various psychological tests, as well as search for specific changes with brain-imaging technologies. Although the disease is described over a century ago, treatment of Alzheimer's disease is still nonexistent. There is no drug that could stop degenerative process or regain lost function - therapy is symptomatic. Focus is on effective activities that have a stimulating effect on the brain, and helps with memory imapirment and mood.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Alzheimerova bolest demencija poremećaj pamćenja amiloidni plakovi neurofibrilarni čvorovi kognitivno stimulativne aktivnosti
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:184:313207
CommitterBosa Licul