Other - Review
UNDERSTANDING BRAIN THROUGH THE HISTORY

Petaros, Anja (2007)
Metadata
Language Croatian
Title (Croatian)O MOZGU TIJEKOM POVIJESTI
Title (English)UNDERSTANDING BRAIN THROUGH THE HISTORY
AuthorPetaros, Anja
Abstract (Croatian)
Tijekom povijesti čovjek je iskoristio različite znanstvene i neznanstvene metode u pokušaju da definira bit vlastita postojanja te funkcioniranje vlastita organizma u prirodi. Pritom je najviše interesa i energije bilo iskorišteno u proučavanju mozga. Od samih je početaka njegova uloga bila pogrešno shvaćena te je mozak u paleolitiku bio viđen kao mističan organ, obitavan često zlim duhovima, a u starom Egiptu kao beskoristan organ, beznačajne funkcije kako za života tako i za smrti. Tek se razvojem grčke filozofije i rimske medicine takav pogled na njegovu funkciju promijenio. Platon, Hipokrat i Pitagora te ostali cerebrocentristi počeli su opisivati mozak kao osnovni organ ljudskog tijela. Galen je brojnim eksperimentima pokušao dokazati takva razmatranja. Iako pogrešna, budući da su temeljena na životinjskim primjerima, ta su učenja ostala aktualna do XVII. stoljeća. Tek su se u renesansi brojni znanstvenici i umjetnici okrenuli ponovnom proučavanju mozga i upozoravanju na greške stare Galenove medicine. Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Willis, Andreas Vesalius u mnogočemu su pridonijeli istraživanju funkcije i morfologije mozga. Takav je trend nastavljen i u XVIII. i XIX. stoljeću kada se mozak počeo shvaćati kao dio ljudskog stroja, čija se funkcija temeljila ponajprije na fizikalnim i matematičkim zakonitostima. Otkrića toga vremena imala su veliku važnost u omogućavanju daljnjeg razvoja znanosti mozga XX. i XXI. stoljeća.
Abstract (English)
Humankind has always employed many scientific and less scientific methods in the attempt to define the origin of our existence and the functioning of our body. In this process a lot of energy has been employed to study the brain. From the very beginning, the real role of the brain was not recognized, and the brain was treated in many different wrong ways: as a mystic organ in the Paleolithic and as a useless organ in the Egyptian medicine. This idea of the brain began to change only with the development of the Greek philosophy and Roman medicine. Plato, Hypocrates, Pythagoras and other cerebrocentrists started to describe the brain as the most important human organ. Through many experiments, Galen tried to prove his theories and to define the real role of the brain. Although his results were incorrect because based on animal examples, they were utilized and accepted by the medicine of later periods (until the 17th century). Only with the beginning of Renaissance many scientists and artists resumed brain studies and pointed out the mistakes made by the Galenic medicine. Andreas Vesalius, Leonardo da Vinci, and Thomas Willis significantly contributed to understanding the brain, its morphology and its functioning. This trend continued in the 18th and 19th century when the human body started to be accepted as a machine, moved mainly by the principles of physics and mathematics. These discoveries played the main role in the later development of brain science which continued in the 20th and 21st century.
Keywords (Croatian)povijest medicine mozak neuroznanost
Keywords (English)History of medicine brain neuroscience
Publication typeother - review
Publication statuspublished
Peer reviewunknown
Journal titleActa medico-historica Adriatica
Numbering2007, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 283-298
ISSN1334-4366
e-ISSN1334-6253
Datepublication: 15.12.2007.
Article URLhttp://hrcak.srce.hr/101680
Scientific fieldBIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE
Basic Medical Sciences
History of Medicine and the Biomedical Sciences
InstitutionUniversity of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:184:452166